How Is A Concussion Treated
You need physical and mental rest to recover from a concussion. Although youll need more rest and sleep than normal, you dont need 100% complete rest. In fact, research has shown that too much mental rest can actually lengthen the recovery period and make you more sensitive to activities when you return to them.
Instead of stopping activities entirely, learn to recognize the triggers that bring on concussion symptoms. Start back slowly, in small amounts. When symptoms occur, back off and rest. Its okay to do some of the activities that dont make you feel worse. Limit any activities that worsen your symptoms.
For example, activities that may bring on symptoms include:
- Texting/spending time looking at your smartphone screen.
- Listening to loud music.
- Doing any physical activity.
As your symptoms improve, you can continue to add more of your activities back into your day.
British Columbia Specific Information
Knowing the signs and symptoms of a serious head injury will help you get the right care. Speak with a health care provider about the injury as soon as possible. If you think a head injury might be serious, call 9-1-1 or visit an emergency department right away. For non-emergency information or advice, call 8-1-1 to speak with a registered nurse any time of the day, every day of the year.
If your childs health care provider finds no signs of a serious head injury, you may be advised to monitor your child in the hours, days and weeks following the injury. Only when your childs health care provider advises you that it is safe for your child to go home in your care, follow the advice on caring for your child at home:
How Can Damage To The Facial Nerve Be Diagnosed
- It can be difficult for medical or nursing staff at first. They may be concentrating on life support or other injuries in the early hours following injury.
- Commonly, it is not the fracture to the temporal bone itself that causes damage to the facial nerve, but swelling within the tight bony canal through which the nerve runs. Since there is no room for swelling to occur, the nerve gets squeezed within the facial canal, leading to nerve malfunction. In this situation, usually the facial muscles are working normally right after the injury, but become weak over several hours or days, as the swelling develops.
- Computerised tomography of the brain or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain may identify damage to the facial nerve.
- Regular observation by medical and nursing staff will allow them to notice whether facial movement is the same on both sides.
- Regular observation will alert staff to any problems the patient may have with eye closure or blinking.
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What Is A Traumatic Brain Injury
TBI is an injury to the brain caused by a blow or jolt to the head from blunt or penetrating trauma. The injury that occurs at the moment of impact is known as the primary injury. Primary injuries can involve a specific lobe of the brain or can involve the entire brain. Sometimes the skull may be fractured, but not always. During the impact of an accident, the brain crashes back and forth inside the skull causing bruising, bleeding, and tearing of nerve fibers . Immediately after the accident the person may be confused, not remember what happened, have blurry vision and dizziness, or lose consciousness. At first the person may appear fine, but their condition can decline rapidly. After the initial impact occurs, the brain undergoes a delayed trauma â it swells â pushing itself against the skull and reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood. This is called secondary injury, which is often more damaging than the primary injury.
In the event of a primary injury, a person can use ice and medicine from a nearby pharmacy, or even order medicine online
Traumatic brain injuries are classified according to the severity and mechanism of injury:
What Are The Different Types Of Head Injury
The following are some of the different types of head injuries:
Intracranial hematoma . There are several types of ICH, or blood clots, in or around the brain. The different types are classified by their location in the brain. These can range from mild head injuries to quite serious and potentially life-threatening injuries. The different types of ICH include the following:
Epidural hematoma. Epidural hematomas occur when a blood clot forms underneath the skull, but on top of the dura, the tough covering that surrounds the brain. They usually come from a tear in an artery that runs just under the skull called the middle meningeal artery. Epidural hematomas are usually associated with a skull fracture.
Subdural hematoma. Subdural hematomas occur when a blood clot forms underneath the skull and underneath the dura, but outside of the brain. These can form from a tear in the veins that go from the brain to the dura, or from a cut on the brain itself. They are sometimes, but not always, associated with a skull fracture.
Diffuse axonal injury . These injuries are fairly common and are usually caused by shaking of the brain back and forth, which can happen in car accidents, from falls or shaken baby syndrome. Diffuse injuries can be mild, such as with a concussion, or may be very severe, as in diffuse axonal injury . In DAI, the patient is usually in a coma for a prolonged period of time, with injury to many different parts of the brain.
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When To Call A Professional
- Numbness or paralysis in any part of the body
Even if your head injury appears to be less severe, and your symptoms are mild, it may be possible that you have had significant damage to the brain or its surrounding structures. This is especially true if you:
- Take medication to thin the blood
- Have a bleeding disorder
- Have a history of heavy alcohol use
- If you have one or more of the risk factors listed above, call a doctor or go to an emergency department immediately if you have a head injury.
What To Expect After A Head Injury
There is no specific treatment for mild head injury other than plenty of rest and not overdoing things. Keep in mind that:
- It is common to not be able to remember the events surrounding the head injury.
- It is normal to feel more tired than usual.
- It can take some time for the brain to recover from a head injury. During this time, headaches, dizziness and mild cognitive problems are common.
- Brain function problems can include mood changes and difficulties with concentrating, remembering things and performing complex tasks.
- Most people make a full recovery and the symptoms only last a few days.
- Some people have ongoing symptoms. If this is the case, visit your local doctor.
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Progression Of Signs And Symptoms
Head trauma and brain injury cause very complex symptoms that require special medical intervention, rehabilitation and follow up. The good news is that the brain has an amazing ability to heal, recover, and find new ways of learning. This is called brain plasticity.
Getting medical help as soon as possible after a head trauma improves long-term outcomes. Remember, any time you suspect head, neck, or spine trauma you need to call 911. It’s always best to err on the side of caution.
Diagnosing Severe Head Injuries
A person with a severe head injury should always be seen in an accident and emergency department.
If any of the symptoms of a severe head injury are present, immediately go to your local A& E department or call 999 and ask for an ambulance.
The healthcare professionals treating you will first make sure you’re in a stable condition, before asking some questions to help with the diagnosis and treatment of your injury.
If a friend or relative has come with you to hospital, they may be asked to describe what happened if you cant remember.
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Who Is Most At Risk For A Concussion
People at greater risk for concussion include:
- Older people and children ages 4 and under due to their risk of falls.
- Adolescents due to bike accidents and sports-related head injuries.
- Military personnel due to exposure to explosive devices.
- Anyone involved in a car accident.
- Victims of physical abuse.
- Anyone who has had a previous concussion.
Adolescents are at higher risk of concussion than any other age group. Researchers think this is because their brains are still developing. The brain is still laying down its neural pathways and adolescents necks are typically weaker at this age than in young adults and older people.
What Are The Symptoms Of A Head Injury
The person may have varying degrees of symptoms associated with the severity of the head injury. The following are the most common symptoms of a head injury. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Mild head injury:
Raised, swollen area from a bump or a bruise
Small, superficial cut in the scalp
Sensitivity to noise and light
Problems with memory and/or concentration
Change in sleep patterns
Ringing in the ears
Alteration in taste
Fatigue or lethargy
Moderate to severe head injury –symptoms may include any of the above plus:
Loss of consciousness
Severe headache that does not go away
Repeated nausea and vomiting
Loss of short-term memory, such as difficulty remembering the events that led right up to and through the traumatic event
Weakness in one side or area of the body
Behavior changes including irritability
Blood or clear fluid draining from the ears or nose
One pupil is dilated, or looks larger, than the other eye and doesn’t constrict, or get smaller, when exposed to light
Deep cut or laceration in the scalp
Open wound in the head
Foreign object penetrating the head
The symptoms of a head injury may resemble other problems or medical conditions. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.
Repair And Reconstruction Of Facial Bones
Surgical treatment of facial fractures may include:
- Resetting of broken bones manually, without surgery .
- Surgery to align broken bones in the face .
- Wiring of a broken jaw to stabilize it as bone heals. This can call for a special liquid diet while the person is unable to chew.
- Bone or skin grafts.
- Repair of eye socket or midfacial bones with titanium hardware.
Headache Symptoms: Migraine Cluster Tension Sinus
Do you have a headache with facial swelling? It could be sinusitis! Sinusitis is a condition that occurs when the sinuses become inflamed. It can be caused by several things, including allergies, a cold, or a sinus infection. Symptoms of sinusitis include headache, facial pain and swelling, nasal congestion, and more. If you think you might have sinusitis, its essential to see a doctor so they can properly diagnose and treat the condition. In the meantime, there are some things you can do to ease your symptoms. Read on to learn more about sinusitis and how to treat it!
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Goals Of Facial Trauma Treatment
The objectives of treating someone with facial trauma using plastic and reconstructive surgery are:
Yang explains his first priority is restoring function: the patients ability to see, breathe, chew, swallow, speak and move facial features. But he adds that surgery to ensure the facial features work properly can take the patients appearance into account.
Our decision-making process, as plastic and reconstructive surgeons, focuses on how can we gain the best functional outcome while considering what the treated area is going to look like afterward. For instance, if we are repairing a major lower jaw fracture, we don’t want to scar the skin, so we may go through the mouth.
Yang says plastic and reconstructive surgeons, when planning treatment for facial trauma, draw from their experience with other types of facial plastic and reconstructive surgery.
We can use our understanding of normal healing and that’s why we use both physical exam and CT. Our experience with repairing congenital facial deformity and cancers affecting the face help us understand the recovery process, he says, adding that surgical planning usually starts with soft tissues and then considers whether broken facial bones are likely to heal on their own or require surgical reconstruction.
Key Points About Head Injury In Children
A head injury is any kind of damage to the scalp, skull, brain, or other tissue and blood vessels in the head. A head injury that affects the brain is often called a brain injury or traumatic brain injury .
The risk of a head injury is high in teens. Head injuries are more common in the spring and summer months when children are very active in outdoor activities such as riding bikes, roller skating, or skateboarding. Children who play sports such as football, soccer, hockey, and basketball are also at higher risk of concussion.
Symptoms of a head injury may include swelling, headache, sensitivity to noise and light, confusion, or nausea and vomiting.
Treatment may include rest, ice, and stitches. In some cases, a child may need to stay in the hospital. He or she may be watched more closely for problems.
A child may also need to be watched closely for increased pressure inside the skull .
Children who suffer a severe brain injury may lose some function in muscle, speech, vision, hearing, or taste.
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What Is Concussion Protocol
Concussion protocol is an organizations set of policies and procedures for caring for someone who has had a head injury. Even though concussions arent limited to sports, concussion protocol is most often associated with sports-related head injury.
The people involved in making sure the concussion protocol is followed include trained healthcare providers with knowledge of concussion care, athletic trainers, school nurse/counselor/teachers, rehabilitation specialists and parents.
A concussion protocol includes such information as:
- Education on concussion definition, signs and symptoms, and management.
- Pre-season baseline brain function test of reaction time, memory, speed of mental processing and other factors per individual player.
- State law criteria for removing a player from activity.
- Sideline assessment of the head injury .
- School adjustments during recovery.
- Gradual return to activity via a gradual process of small increases in activity.
More On Reducing Swelling In Your Face
Generally speaking, treatments for facial swelling focus on taking care of swelling around the eyes and eyelids, cheeks, or jaw.
Other treatment may focus on reducing swelling caused by impact fractures, allergic reactions, teeth problems, sinus issues, or other medical conditions.
If the swelling is a result of an injury or allergy, you should seek medical attention before trying any type of at-home treatment or remedy. Your doctor will be able to help you determine the exact cause of the swelling and recommend the appropriate treatment plan.
Once you know what youre dealing with, you can come up with a plan of attack. Some of the more common ways to reduce facial swelling include:
- Getting more rest.
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What Are The Treatment Options Available In The Later Stages Following Injury
- Facial rehabilitation involves a wide range of treatment options including physiotherapy and speech and language therapy.
- Each person is individual and treatment options will vary according to your symptoms and circumstances.
- Certain surgical procedures may be available to help with eye closure and smiling.
How Can I Prevent Concussion
To reduce the risk of concussions:
- Always wear seatbelts in the car and buckle children in safety seats.
- Wear a helmet that fits when biking, riding a motorcycle, skating, skiing, horseback riding, or playing contact sports. A helmet should be secure and not move when you shake your head, but not be uncomfortably tight.
- Prevent falls on stairs by putting up handrails.
- Install safety gates on stairs to protect young children.
- Put grab bars in the bathroom, with nonslip mats in the tub and on floors.
- Improve lighting and remove trip hazards.
- Install safety guards by windows to keep children from falling out.
- Strengthen your neck muscles. Strong neck muscles may be able to help absorb some of the impact of blows to the head and decrease the risk of concussion.
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What Do Medical Providers Look For
Once the patient is stabilized, the entire head is checked for cuts, torn tissue, bleeding, and other soft tissue damage. Are the eyes protruding outward or have they sunk backward into the skull? Is there anything interfering with breathing through the nose and mouth? Are there broken bones to the face and skull?
The signs and symptoms of traumatic brain injury that have resulted from head trauma may be present right away or may take time to develop. These signs also depend on which part of the brain was damaged, and if there is bleeding under the skull and inside the brain.
Reduce Swelling Due To A Surgery
Swelling after surgery is very different from other causes of inflammation. This condition can require at least a few days to subside the swelling. Most of the time, applying an ice or cold pack on your face can help reduce facial swelling after surgery.
Your doctor will probably have a particular instruction for you to follow. However, generally, you can use ice to the swollen part for 10 to 20 minutes at least three times a day, depending on your tolerance.
Moreover, the kind and degree of any jaw surgery you are recovering from can likewise tell how long generalized facial swelling lasts.
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